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Thisvolume starts with the basicconceptsof FuzzyLogic: the membership function, the intersection and the union of fuzzy sets, fuzzy numbers, and the extension principle underlying the algorithmic operations. Several chapters are devoted to applications of FuzzyLogic in various branches of Operations Research: PERT planning with uncertain activity durations, SMART and the AHP for Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) with vague preferential statements, ELECTRE usingthe ideasof the AHP and SMART, and Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) with weighted degrees of satisfaction. Finally, earlierstudiesof colour perception illustrate the attemptsto find a physiological basisfor the set-theoretical and the algorithmic operations in Fuzzy Logic. The last chapter also discusses somekey issues in linguistic categorization and the prospectsof FuzzyLogicas a multi-disciplinary research activity. I am greatly indebted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, for the splendid opportunity to start the actual work on this book during my sabbatical leavefrom Delft (1993 - 1994); to LAMSADE, Universite de Paris-Dauphine, where many ideas emerged duringtwo winter visits (1989, 1990); to the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, whereI got further inspiration duringa number of summer visits (1992, 1995, and 1996); and to the NISSAN Foundation in The Netherlands who enabled me to visit several Japanese universities (June 1996). Moreover, I gratefully acknowledge the stimulating supportgiven by many colleagues inthe International Society on Multi-Criteria Decision Making and in the European Working Group "Aide Multicritere Ii la Decision".
Paper play is both creative and educational fun that children can't get enough of. In constructing easy to make shapes, children create a fascinating world, while developing dexterity and spatial imagination. In other words, the cut-outs presented within make Big Ideas for Little People the most engaging activity book you can introduce to your child. The animal and vehicle shapes found on these pages can be created by your child without any help from an adult...and no need for glue or scissors. The patterns, clear instructions and pre-made pop-out shapes make it easy for little hands to manipulate these fun shapes. The simple stories on each page are an added attraction and suggest how to make the paper models come alive! These three magnificent books are an occasion for children to create their own toys. With the first book, children will be encouraged to discover a farm: ripening fruit in the orchard, vegetables growing in the garden, mooing cows, bleating sheep, grunting pigs and cackling chickens. In second book, they will learn the secrets of wild animals through short descriptions placed amongst the illustrations. And finally, in the third book, motor vehicles and machines will be presented-cars, lorries, and heavy duty machines amongst others. Reading about farm animals, wild animals and vehicles will give parents a great opportunity to join children at play and spend some quality time with them.
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